LIBS Info: Element Analysis

Title Authors Material Detector Spectrometer Software
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Mars surface analysis: capabilities at stand-off distances and detection of chlorine and sulfur elements Beatrice Salle, Jean-Luc Lacour, Evelyne Vors, Pascal Fichet, Sylvestre Maurice, David A. Cremers, Roger C. Wiens Aluminium Alloy Princeton Instruments ICCD Max Jobin Yvon HR1000
Laser: Nd:YAG
Gate Delay: 0.200us
Gate Width: 2.500us
Early paper exploring the feasibility and possible performance for a LIBS system on Mars. All experiments were conducted in a simulated Mars atmosphere (95.3% CO2, 2.7% N2 and 1.6% Ar) at 9mbar. This work describes experiments on metal and rock (basalt) samples to establish performance at stand-off ranges of 3-12m. The total photons collected per steradian, crater volume and crater diameter as a function of standoff distance are also measured. Experiments were originally performed with an echelle spectrometer (ESA 3000) but efficiency was low, hence quantitative results are from the HR1000 spectrometer.
Element Detection Limit (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Other Wavelengths (nm) Calibration Method Calibration Range (ppm) Notes
Si 74.0000 (Stated) 288.1580 N/A Univariate Calibration 270.0000-136300.0000 Gate delay of 0.8us and gate width of 4us used. 3m Standoff
Cr 11.0000 (Stated) 1430.0000 N/A Univariate Calibration -10.0000-52.0000 Gate Delay: 2us Gate Width: 4us Standoff: 3m
Mg 7.0000 (Stated) 285.2130 N/A Univariate Calibration 7.0000-57200.0000 Gate delay: 0.8us Gate width: 4us Standoff: 3m
S 130000.0000 (Minimum concentration detected) 416.2700 N/A Univariate Calibration -10.0000--10.0000 The Martian conditions help with S detection. Standoff: 3m Gate Delay: 0.1us Gate Width: 5us

Element RMSE (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Calibration Method Notes