LIBS Info: Element Analysis

Title Authors Material Detector Spectrometer Software
Liquid steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet Laszlo Peter, Volker Storm, Reinhard Noll Steel Photomultiplier Paschen-Runge Spectrometer
Laser: Nd:YAG
Gate Delay: Noneus
Gate Width: Noneus
Analysis of molten steel using a specially constructed probe. The wavelengths of interest are in the vacuum UV, so the probe is evacuated to 0.1mbar. The laser beam is focussed onto the surface of the steel melt inside the tip of the probe/lance. The laser was also modified to emit up to 3 pulses with separations of 25us and 42us respectively. Similarly each detector has 3 integration gates with 12us width. While the details of the detection system are not fully described, it does utilise a Paschen-Runge spectrometer configuration with photomultipliers at slits at key wavelengths in the spectrometer.
Element Detection Limit (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Other Wavelengths (nm) Calibration Method Calibration Range (ppm) Notes
S 11.0000 (Stated) 180.7300 N/A Univariate Calibration 50.0000-1100.0000 Ratioed to Fe at 187.75nm
C 5.0000 (Stated) 193.0900 N/A Univariate Calibration 70.0000-300.0000 Peak normalised to Fe 187.75nm
P 21.0000 (Stated) 178.2800 N/A Univariate Calibration 60.0000-890.0000 Ratioed to Fe at 187.75nm
Ni 9.0000 (Stated) 231.6000 N/A Univariate Calibration 310.0000-1500.0000 Ratioed to Fe at 187.75nm
Cr 9.0000 (Stated) 267.7200 N/A Univariate Calibration 90.0000-900.0000 Ratioed to Fe at 187.75nm

Element RMSE (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Calibration Method Notes