LIBS Info: Element Analysis

Title Authors Material Detector Spectrometer Software
Quantification of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Nicolas Andre, Ann Wymore, Deanne J. Brice, Steve Allman, Rodger C. Martin, Madhavi Z. Martin Lathanides Andor ICCD Catalina SE 200 Unscrambler
Laser: Nd:YAG
Gate Delay: 1.000us
Gate Width: 10.000us
Pellets of key Rare Earth Elements (Eu, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm Y) are formed from powders mixed into graphite and formed into pellets (with PVA solution included into the mix to improve mechanical performance of the pellets). High concentrations, up to 50% were used to determine wavelengths that were useful across high concentration ranges. In a novel improvement to the measurement, the authors use a 650nm displacement laser to ensure optimal focusing conditions. Argon atmosphere also improved the performance. To test the method, the spectra from a pellet containing all 7 Rare earth elements was obtained. Elements were discernible, but it was concluded univariate calibrations for each element was impractical, instead a PLS model was used.
Element Detection Limit (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Other Wavelengths (nm) Calibration Method Calibration Range (ppm) Notes

Element RMSE (ppm) Wavelength (nm) Calibration Method Notes
Y 6.7500 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
Y 2.8800 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
Sm 12.2500 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
Sm 6.3000 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
Pr 12.1600 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
Pr 3.1400 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
Nd 6.0400 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
Nd 4.2700 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
La 10.0600 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
La 5.1700 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
Gd 10.4000 % -10.0000 PLS Validation
Gd 7.4300 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration
Eu 8.0900 % -10.0000 PLS Validation.
Eu 5.7300 % -10.0000 PLS Calibration. Concentration range 1-50%